What are the pros and cons to hosting a static website on Netlify, Cloudflare Pages or Google Firebase versus using a traditional web hosting provider?
It would depend on what exactly who are hosting.
Normally with a traditional web host, you'll only have the ability to run .php .html and if you're lucky node.js/ruby. After reading up on the Knowledgebase article by cPanel - https://support.cpanel.net/hc/en-us/articles/4408475507479-Does-cPanel-support-Python-Java-or-other-frameworks- Java and Python are also other options? Haven't really seen it used before.
Meanwhile, Netlify, Vercel, Cloudflare Pages, etc. usually serve modern frameworks - https://developers.cloudflare.com/pages/framework-guides/
Personally, the only use for traditional web hosting for me would be WordPress, PHP applications, or whatever else Softaculous supports. Basic HTML is handled on GitHub/GitLab.
In reality just about the same. Whatever you can host in Netlify, Cloudflare Pages , etc ... you can host it in traditional web hosting.
One approach is more cloud based/ managed / focused and doesn't use the traditional control panels.
Also modern frameworks are not only static. For example NextJS can be either static or partially static and have parts dynamic, or all dynamic. It is notable for using ReactJS for the frontend and supporting Server side rendering by default along with many other amazing features making it an excellent framework.